This page provides a resource for information and links from a July 27, 2021 continuing education workshop provided by the Department of Nutrition at the University of Nevada, Reno and presented by Dr. Steven Frese.


These resources are provided as sources of independent information on probiotics and probiotics

NIH – NCCIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics


These peer-reviewed publications and/or government reports were cited in the presentation.

Berg, G., Rybakova, D., Fischer, D., Cernava, T., Vergès, M.C.C., Charles, T., Chen, X., Cocolin, L., Eversole, K., Corral, G.H. and Kazou, M., 2020. Microbiome definition re-visited: old concepts and new challengesMicrobiome8(1), pp.1-22.

Subramanian, S., Blanton, L.V., Frese, S.A., Charbonneau, M., Mills, D.A. and Gordon, J.I., 2015. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiotaCell161(1), pp.36-48.

Kohl, K.D., Weiss, R.B., Cox, J., Dale, C. and Denise Dearing, M., 2014. Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxinsEcology letters17(10), pp.1238-1246.

Yatsunenko, T., Rey, F.E., Manary, M.J., Trehan, I., Dominguez-Bello, M.G., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Baldassano, R.N., Anokhin, A.P. and Heath, A.C., 2012. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geographynature486(7402), pp.222-227.

Odamaki, T., Kato, K., Sugahara, H., Hashikura, N., Takahashi, S., Xiao, J.Z., Abe, F. and Osawa, R., 2016. Age-related changes in gut microbiota composition from newborn to centenarian: a cross-sectional studyBMC microbiology16(1), pp.1-12.

Duar, R.M., Henrick, B.M., Casaburi, G. and Frese, S.A., 2020. Integrating the ecosystem services framework to define dysbiosis of the breastfed infant gut: the role of B. infantis and human milk oligosaccharidesFrontiers in nutrition7, p.33.

Warner, B.B., Deych, E., Zhou, Y., Hall-Moore, C., Weinstock, G.M., Sodergren, E., Shaikh, N., Hoffmann, J.A., Linneman, L.A., Hamvas, A. and Khanna, G., 2016. Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control studyThe Lancet387(10031), pp.1928-1936.

Gibson, G.R., Hutkins, R., Sanders, M.E., Prescott, S.L., Reimer, R.A., Salminen, S.J., Scott, K., Stanton, C., Swanson, K.S., Cani, P.D. and Verbeke, K., 2017. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebioticsNature reviews Gastroenterology & hepatology14(8), pp.491-502.

Kellow, N.J., Coughlan, M.T. and Reid, C.M., 2014. Metabolic benefits of dietary prebiotics in human subjects: a systematic review of randomised controlled trialsBritish Journal of Nutrition111(7), pp.1147-1161.

Beserra, B.T., Fernandes, R., do Rosario, V.A., Mocellin, M.C., Kuntz, M.G. and Trindade, E.B., 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesityClinical Nutrition34(5), pp.845-858.

Hill, C., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibson, G.R., Merenstein, D.J., Pot, B., Morelli, L., Canani, R.B., Flint, H.J., Salminen, S. and Calder, P.C., 2014. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature reviews Gastroenterology & hepatology11(8), pp.506-514.

Su, G.L., Ko, C.W., Bercik, P., Falck-Ytter, Y., Sultan, S., Weizman, A.V. and Morgan, R.L., 2020. AGA clinical practice guidelines on the role of probiotics in the management of gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology159(2), pp.697-705.

Lewis, Z.T., Shani, G., Masarweh, C.F., Popovic, M., Frese, S.A., Sela, D.A., Underwood, M.A. and Mills, D.A., 2016. Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products. Pediatric research79(3), pp.445-452.

Vallabhaneni, S., Walker, T.A., Lockhart, S.R., Ng, D., Branch, I.D.P., Chiller, T., Melchreit, R., Brandt, M.E. and Smith, R.M., 2015. Fatal gastrointestinal mucormycosis in a premature infant associated with a contaminated dietary supplement—Connecticut, 2014. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report64(6), p.155.

van den Akker, C.H., van Goudoever, J.B., Shamir, R., Domellöf, M., Embleton, N.D., Hojsak, I., Lapillonne, A., Mihatsch, W.A., Canani, R.B., Bronsky, J. and Campoy, C., 2020. Probiotics and preterm infants: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition and the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.

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